Book Editor Role — What Do a Book Editors Do?

Tips for Editing and Proofreading Website Content

Editing and proofreading website content is a key step in the content creation process. After writing your website content, it’s a good idea to set it aside for a day or two and return to it with a fresh mind for editing and proofreading.

Let’s look more closely at some of the things to consider when editing and proofreading website content.

Editing website content – the first step

The first step in the process is editing the website content. Editing involves making the content more clear and concise.  Editing website content can include:

  • Replacing complicated words with simpler equivalents
  • Eliminating unnecessary words
  • Removing jargon and corporate buzzwords
  • Shortening sentences to make them easier to read
  • Moving sentences so the text flows logically.

When editing website content, also consider the reader. For example, if you sell technical products or services, and you expect some readers won’t understand advanced terminology, you will want to define terms for them.

After you have done this, you can check how readable the content by using readability tools in Microsoft Word or online. A popular system for measuring readability is called Flesch Reading Ease. It calculates a readability score of 1 to 100 based the average number of words per sentence and syllables per word. The higher these averages, the lower the readability. For example, a newspaper might have a score of 60, while an academic paper might have a score of 20 on the readability scale. When analysing your website content, aim for at least 60.

You can find an online readability checker here.

If your products or services are more complex, the words and sentences will tend to be longer, so readability will be lower. You will want to keep this in mind when editing website content.

To learn more, read How to Make Your Business Writing More Readable.

Proofreading website content – the last step

After the editing stage, it’s time for proofreading your website content. Compared to editing, proofreading looks at the finer details such as spelling, grammar, punctuation and consistency. Using a spelling and grammar check will help find some errors but don’t rely on it too much when proofreading website content. Consistency issues are important to consider by not so easy to find. For example, if you capitalise each word in one heading level, you should keep this consistent across the website. The formatting of the text should also be consistent across the website. If each page uses a different font, size or spacing, this will distract readers from your message.

To correct any remaining errors, it’s usually best to proofread the text using the website content editor. In WordPress, for example, choose to Publish and Update the page after making corrections. Then go to the live web page to ensure all errors and inconsistencies have been picked up. It’s also good to print the page from the live website and go through it one more time before completing the website content proofreading.

If you need help with editing and proofreading website content, visit our Editing and Proofreading Services page.

Why Cheap Proofreading Can Be Very Expensive

Title Case, Sentence Case or All Capitals — Which Should You Use?

First, if you are not familiar with these terms:

Title case, or title style, is when you capitalise each word, except for conjunctions, prepositions and articles. For example, the article title above is in title case.

Sentence case, or sentence style, is when you capitalise only the first word. For example, Should you use title case or sentence case for headings on your website and in your documents?

All capitals, abbreviated as ALL CAPS, is when you capitalise all letters.

Using sentence case, title case or all capitals is a style choice, but be sure to use the style consistently throughout each document and publication.

The current style in Australia is to use minimal capitalisation, so sentence case seems to be more common in professionally written business and corporate documents. In addition, research on readability has shown that lower case letters are easier to read. The Australian Style manual notes:

The readability of lower case letters is greater than that of capitals. This is because the ascenders and descenders in the lower-case letterforms give a distinctive physical shape to each word. We read by recognising word shapes, which is way we sometimes misread words set in fonts that have idiosyncratic letterforms (specifically, non-conventional character widths).

As for all capitals, research conducted by Miles Tinkler and published in Legibility of Print found that using all capitals slowed reading speeds:

All-capital print greatly retards speed of reading in comparison with lower-case type. Also, most readers judge all capitals to be less legible. Faster reading of the lower-case print is due to the characteristic word forms furnished by this type. This permits reading by word units, while all capitals tend to be read letter by letter. Furthermore, since all-capital printing takes at least one-third more space than lower case, more fixation pauses are required for reading the same amount of material. The use of all capitals should be dispensed with in every printing situation.[1]

Some experts suggest that it’s okay to use all capitals for short amount of text, such as street signs and short headlines. It’s interesting to note that the Australian Style manual uses sentence case for chapter headings, all capitals for main headings within chapters and sentence case for sub-headings. For example:

Chapter 14: Editing and proofreading



Categories of tasks

Comprehensive editing

The editing brief and timetable


Scope of tasks

Author collaboration and review

I was recently working with a graphic designer on updating the copy and design of a company brochure. The older version used title case for the subheadings and the designer noted that this was “old school”. So for modern-looking brochures, websites and publications, sentence case seems to be the most popular.

If you want to compromise and use both styles, a sound approach is to use title case for main headings and sentence case for subheadings. If you believe the studies conducted on the readability of all capitals, you will want to avoid this style altogether.

Michael Gladkoff

  1. Tinker, Miles A. (1963). Legibility of Print. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press. p. 65.

Annual Report Editing – Tips for Editing Annual Reports

An annual report is an important publication for communicating with shareholders, potential investors and the media. From our experience editing and proofreading annual reports since 2004, we have come up with a list of points to keep in mind that will improve the image of the company and effectiveness of the report.

Editing Australian Writing for Audiences in the United States

Australian flag signifying Australian writing.If you  plan to sell your products and services in the United States, editing your writing to adapt to the local language is essential. Bear in mind that Australian writing is not always clear to readers in the United States.

For example, a few years ago we adapted a brochure for an Australian software company that sells its products in the US.  In the original version being distributed in the United States, the company was explaining how the software automatically completed a process fortnightly. This must have left many of their US prospects scratching their heads because Americans don’t use the word fortnight. Most don’t know what it means and use the terms every two weeks and biweekly to describe that length of time. Some Americans might have been exposed to the word fortnight through reading British literature or other sources, but the vast majority will have to look it up to understand what it means.

In addition, the way you spell your words can have an influence on the effectiveness of your message. I recently came across a website of an Australian motivational speaker and author living in the US. She speaks about parenting and writes about being a mum on her website. Although there is nothing wrong with the spelling the word mum, Americans spell it mom. US readers will understand the meaning but will be distracted by the unfamiliar spelling. For maximum effectiveness it would be better to use the US spelling in your writing for readers in the United States. Likewise, US businesses will get better results by editing their copy when selling to Australian consumers and businesses.

Here are a few of many terms and spellings that vary between US and Australian writing.

Australian term US equivalent
barrack for a teamroot for a team
bonnet (of a car)hood
boot (or a car)trunk
CBD (central business district)downtown
hire a carrent a car
post codezip code
primary schoolelementary (or grammar) school
shopping centreshopping mall
shopping trolleyshopping cart
spring onion (or shallots)scallion
thongsflip flops


But there’s much more than spelling and word usage that differentiates Australian writing from US writing. Many aspects of style tend to differ between the two countries. A few of these include bulleted lists, acronyms, initials of names, dates and times, and dashes and hyphens. If you are not sure what the accepted style is in the United States, you can refer to the Chicago Manual of Style or The Associated Press (AP) Stylebook.

In some cases, you will need to decide where your main market is and have your writing edited accordingly. For example, we regularly edit books for Australian authors who sell their publications through Amazon. Given the size of the US market, compared with the UK and Commonwealth nations, these authors ask us to edit their work to create US versions. In a typical book, we make hundreds of changes when editing to adapt the spelling, words and style for US readers.

If you are delivering a speech or presentation to US audiences, you will want to get feedback from a native speaker or long-term resident to see if they understand everything you are saying.  Although not in a professional setting, I remember my young son shocking American relatives when he said, “I’m going to wash my hands in the toilet”. When speaking in public, you don’t want to get a similar reaction from your audience by saying something that they don’t understand or misinterpret.

So whether you’re writing a brochure, book or presentation for audiences in the United States, it pays to have your work edited and reviewed by a professional editor who understands the differences between words, expressions and style in Australia and the United States.

Michael Gladkoff

Proofreading for Consistency

Proofreading — There’s More Than Meets the Eye

Proofreading involves much more than checking and correcting grammar, spelling and punctuation. Creating consistency within one document or several is an important part of proofreading. Let’s look at how documents might lack consistency and what we can do overcome this issue.

Proofreading for consistency. Shows bright yellow text on a road "Be Consistent".Proofreading spelling and word usage

Correcting for consistency when proofreading can be especially important when several writers have contributed to a document.  For example, one writer might write programme while another might write program. Both are acceptable in Australia, but you need to choose which spelling you will use throughout your documents and publications. Once you have decided, you can use the Find and Replace function in Word to make the term consistent throughout the document.

Acronyms are another thing that should be checked for consistency when proofreading. Do you use full stops in your acronyms or not (for example, I.T. or IT)? Most current style guides call for no punctuation in acronyms but you will want to choose your preferred style.

Proofreading dates and numbers

One writer might express the date as October 25, 2012 while another might write 25 October 2012. To create consistency across an organisation’s publications it’s necessary to communicate the approved style.

Another example is expressing spans of time (such as a financial year). Would you write 2011-2012 Annual Report or 2011-12 Annual Report?  Either option would be correct, but one needs to be selected and kept consistent throughout the publication.

Proofreading bulleted lists

If your documents and publications have bulleted lists, they need to be in a consistent style. If you don’t know the accepted style conventions for bulleted lists in Australia, read our post on Editing and Proofreading Bulleted Lists.

Proofreading headings

In a larger document or publication, headings help readers navigate and find what they need. When proofreading, ensure that heading styles are consistent. If most main headings are in 16pt Arial while some are in 14pt New Times Roman, it can confuse your readers when they are trying to find information in your documents.  One way to avoid this is to set up heading styles in a Word template.  But you will still want to check the headings when proofreading because the template styles might not have been followed.

These are just a few points to consider when proofreading for consistency.  Creating a style guide will help you achieve consistency in your documents and publications when proofreading, especially when different writers are contributing to them.

If you are not familiar with style guides and what they include, here’s an example of a writing_style_guide from a government department. An excellent resource for proofreading is the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, which is the official guide for government and many corporations in Australia.

Business Document Editing – Tips for More Effective Business Documents

You can spend hours on your business writing, but this investment of time will generate greater results if you take the next step: business document editing.

Business document editing requires more than finding and correcting errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation.

The following tips will help you go beyond the basics when business document editing.

1. Check for consistency when business document editing.  This is especially important when the document has been written by several people. For example:

  • Do you write I.T. (information technology) or IT?
  • How should you express dates? Should it be June 1st 2012 or 1 June 2012?
  • Which variant do you use when words have two accepted spellings? For example, should your write programme or program?

Part of the business document editing process should be to make spelling and style consistent throughout. It will help if your company has a style guide that includes preferred spellings and styles.

2. Simplify complicated language when business document editing. Break long sentences down into several if possible. Use the simple words you can without changing the meaning. For example, change at the present time to now. For ideas on how write simply and clearly see previous editing blog posts in this section.

3. Check the headings when editing your business documents to ensure it will be easy for readers to ‘navigate’. Make sure the headings styles are distinguishable and make sense. The main headings and sub-headings should be consistent throughout the document. Use different sizes and different fonts to differentiate the heading levels.

4.  Think about the structure when business document editing. Do the ideas flow logically? If content is not in the right place, you might need to move it. This can include rearranging paragraphs, sections or entire chapters.

5. Do a final check of the basics — including spelling, grammar and punctuation — when editing your business documents. Technically, this stage is called proofreading.

6. If collaborating with others when document editing, use the Track Changes function in Word. By doing this, writers working with you on the document will be able to see the changes made.

Follow these business document editing steps to ensure that your business documents are as effective as possible.

If you need assistance with proofreading and editing your business documents, visit our Proofreading and Editing Services page.

Book Editing Brilliance

Book editing is the ‘magic touch’ that makes all your hard work completing a book, report or other publication worthwhile. Why? Because eagle-eyed editing weaves your content together adding:

  • credibility
  • flow
  • cohesion
  • polish
  • clarity
  • flair.

These are all ‘must haves’ for a successful publication — whether it’s academic, fiction or a business publication. Readers are won over by captivating and compelling writing. Any work simply cannot boast these qualities without meticulous editing.

Readers will accept or reject your publication if it’s lacking the critical elements that make it readable. Book editing gets your manuscript ready for publication with:

  • tight logical structure and organisation
  • powerful character and/or argument development
  • sound plot and exposition
  • clear concise sentence structure
  • natural believable dialogue
  • savvy word choice.

In essence, book editing optimises your manuscript’s chance of being read and seriously considered by publishers and readers. So in this article we give you a helpful how-to guide to ensure editing does your manuscript justice.

Take a break when book editing

Sound counterproductive? It certainly isn’t. You’re close to your work — but effective book editing demands a fresh and critical pair of eyes.  After spending time on your publication, you need some time to come back and do your rigorous review.

Flip the script when book editing

Swap your creative writing mindset for serious critical reappraisal. Every word, sentence and paragraph must receive a thorough unsentimental going over. Sure your words may sound brilliant – even illuminating — but the cardinal rule of book editing is: if they are surplus to requirements they must go. This can be challenging for someone as close as you are to your work. But unemotional book editing is the way to go. Only then can you achieve concise and polished content.

Consistency is crucial when book editing

Writing a book or manuscript can take months — even years. Such long time periods make it easy for you to lose track of certain key elements. In fiction this could be plot elements and character traits; in academic writing it could be minor argument details. If you contradict yourself within your content or let gaps slip through the net, your readers will notice.

So prepare for editing as you go by compiling reference sheets. Simple bullet points on key aspects of character, plot, argument or other integral factors in your manuscript. Update these as your book develops. You will find reference sheets an invaluable resource at editing stage, helping you achieve consistency throughout.

Nail your narrative arc with book editing

Every writer knows the basic rule that a book needs a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet these are not always achieved in a final manuscript. How can you uphold the narrative arc in your piece of work? Simply keep its three steps at the forefront of your mind while writing. When it comes to book editing, make sure your three structural phases stand out clearly. It is always valuable to get someone unfamiliar with your book to double check this for you. After all, you know what is coming next. But your readers won’t.

Become a pedantic proofreader when book editing

Formatting is pivotal to effective book or manuscript editing.  Your format provides a visual framework for your content. So you need to ensure titles, subtitles, fonts and more are working hard at the right task. Besides formatting, you must proofread every section of your content. Let’s step through the different aspects of editing your book’s formatting and content:

  • Cover page: Do not overlook this opening window to your manuscript. You must check your title is spelled correctly and laid out according to relevant publishing guidelines.
  • Spine: Check the content on the spine and book jacket. Also check that all spine content is accurately centred with no ‘orphans’ scattering out onto your covers.
  • Fonts and margins: Ensure you have selected a clear and easily readable font. While you are at it, ensure your margins are consistent and tidy.
  • Headers and footers: Rigorously check headers and footers for spelling errors when editing. Make a mistake in one header or footer, and your bungle is likely to be repeated on every page!
  • Chapter headings, table of contents and index must all be checked for spelling and grammatical accuracy. Be sure too that your table of contents and index match your chapter headings.
  • Check your pictures, tables and descriptions when editing: These are important to your story, business case or academic findings. So be sure they earn their keep by being correctly placed and accurately spelled — and bearing the right data.

Get a fresh, trained set of eyes for book editing

Another option is to hire a professional editor to review your manuscript. This investment can determine whether your book achieves its purpose or gets published if you are submitting it to publishers.